六丑·杨花·彭元逊|注释|翻译|赏析|讲解

【作品简介】   《六丑·杨花》由彭元逊创作,被选入《宋词三百首》。这首词是一首咏物词,通过咏杨花而写身世,寄托故国之思。其特色在于不写杨花之形与神,而是用一些可以通过杨花产生联想的语汇营造境界,引导读者进行想象和联想。下阕表现得尤为明显,尤其末尾两句,想象新颖奇特,为画龙点睛之笔。更多宋词赏析文章敬请关注习古堂国学网的《宋词三百首》专栏。   【原文】 六丑·杨花 作者:彭元逊   似东风老大,那复有,当时风气。有情不收,江山身是寄。浩荡何世?但忆临官道,暂来不住,便出门千里。痴心指望回风坠。扇底相逢,钗头微缀。他家万条千缕,解遮亭障驿,不隔江水。
  瓜洲曾舣①。等行人岁岁。日下长秋,城乌夜起,帐庐好在春睡。共飞归湖上,草青无地。愔愔雨、春心如腻②。欲待化、丰乐前,青门都废③。何人念、流落无几。点点抟作,雪绵松润,为君裛泪④。
  【注释】
①反洲曾舣:王安石有《泊船瓜洲》诗。舣:即泊船,让船靠岸。
②愔(yīn):宁静。
③青门:古长安城门名。邵平为秦东陵侯,秦破,寓居青门外种瓜,其瓜甚佳,以东陵瓜或青门瓜名闻遐迩。
④裛(yì):沾湿。此处有揩拭的意思。泪:拭泪。
  【译文】
  暮春时节春风渐老,哪里还有当初的芳芬情意?多情的杨花无人收留。在空阔的江山中到处漂泊,身世如寄,不知要飘落到何时何世?追忆当年她曾在官道暂时依傍,却未能长久地留居,又只有悠悠地出门千里,痴心遗篇指望着能被旋风吹坠,能飞落到佳人的扇底。或是轻轻地落在钗头上作为点缀。别人家的柳条千丝万缕,只知道遮蔽长亭短驿,却阻隔不断向东流的江水。她曾经在瓜洲靠岸,岁岁等着行人返归。夕阳已落下故宫,城头的栖乌被月光惊起。她又曾在账幕中沉沉春睡,也曾和友伴共同飞到湖上,四处都是青草而无落足之地。奈何空中落着绵绵丝雨,沾湿杨花,使她春心如腻。想飞也飞不起。她想要飞到丰乐楼前饯别的宴席,想要飞到青门外去,都因力气不足而枉费了心机。有谁来可怜她,到处流落所剩无几,点点滴滴,滚作松软雪白的绵团,只可以为君擦去伤心的泪水。
  【赏析】
  
  本词咏杨花。表面上句句是咏杨花,实际上是字里行间寓以词人身世之感,含有故国君王之思。这首词以细腻笔触,描绘了飘零无依的杨花,并用拟人手法赋予它哀怨之感,缠绵之情,杨花无依飘零的形象,便是南宋遗民的形象,故此词,无不有哀民悼国之感。本词看起来并不想固守词家所谓不粘不滞的行规,而是直抒其情,随意任性,洋洋洒洒,一如漫天飞舞无可依归的落絮游丝,倒也清新别致。另外,从本词也可看出由宋入元雅词的通俗化趋势,这也与散曲的兴起有关。更多宋词赏析文章敬请关注习古堂国学网的《宋词三百首》专栏。
  【作者介绍】   彭元逊,生卒年不详,字巽吾,庐陵(今江西吉安)人。与刘辰翁有唱和,宋亡不仕。存词20首。更多唐诗宋词赏析敬请关注习古堂国学网(www.xigutang.com)的相关文章。   【宋词英译】 PENG Yuanxun – Lyrics to the Melody of Six Failings (On willow catkins)   Easterlies seem weak and feeble, They have not the spirit they used to breathe. Emotions need not be suppressed, for we live in the countryside, Why be bothered by the mighty world? Nonetheless I think of the way of office, stays are short and never long-term, One soon finds oneself thousands of miles from home. My wishful thinking hopes for the breeze to turn its head, So we could meet under fans of foliage as hairpin-like sprigs sway. There are those who have millions of willow strands To shade provide for their garden which the river cannot divide and separate.   Once I docked at the Melon Bay where crowds pass one another year after year, The sun fell drawing out a feel of fall, crows in the town fluttered at night. Sleeping on board, luckily I had a sweet dream, Back to linger on a lake I was, there was not a spot not covered by grass. Silent is the drizzle, boredom encumbers the vernal spirit, Which one hopes to alleviate at the House of Joy and Prosperity, Yet in ruins is the drinking place by the Blue Gate. I wonder who keeps in mind a destitute soul with little left, Down dribble sparkling, soft and snowy drops and droplets To my saturated tears shed.
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